1 ratings / 5 average

Escalating Immunotherapies for Highly Active Multiple Sclerosis: Reviewing the Evidence

Antonio Scalfari, MD1, Richard Nicholas, PhD, FRCP2, Omar Malik, PhD, FRCP2, and Paolo A Muraro, MD, PhD1,2

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system [1,2] that results in marked axonal degeneration and gliosis in the advanced stages. However, quantitative microscopic studies have shown that there can be prominent loss of axons within active lesions even in early phases of the disease [3,4]. Clinical features are heterogeneous and long-term prognosis is difficult to predict. The majority of patients experience an initial disease phase that is punctuated by exacerbations and remissions (relapsing–remitting phase; RRMS) followed, in approximately 80% of cases, by progressive accumulation of disability (secondary progressive phase; SPMS) [5]. Approximately 15–20% of patients present with a progressive course from the onset (primary progressive; PPMS) [6].

Return to top


The Role of B Cells in Multiple Sclerosis: Experimental and Clinical Aspects
Til Menge, MD, Gerd Meyer zu Hörste, MD, and Bernd C Kieseier, MD
CML Multiple Sclerosis
Pharmacogenomics in Multiple Sclerosis
Manuel Comabella, MD and Xavier Montalban, MD
CML Multiple Sclerosis
The Role of MRI as a Predictive Marker for Disease Progression Measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale
Antonia Ceccarelli, MD, Domenico Caputo, MD, and Marco Rovaris, MD
CML Multiple Sclerosis
Advances in Multiple Sclerosis Therapy: New Oral Disease-Modifying Agents
Andreas Lutterotti, MD and Thomas Berger, MD, MSc
CML Multiple Sclerosis
Optical Coherence Tomography as a Marker of Axonal Damage in Multiple Sclerosis
Shiv Saidha, MRCPI, Christopher Eckstein, MD, and John N Ratchford, MD
CML Multiple Sclerosis