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Immunotherapy for Invasive Fungal Infections

Ganapathi I Parameswaran, MD1, and Brahm H Segal, MD, FACP, FIDSA1,2

Immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFI) need to be tailored to reversing the underlying immunodeficiencies. Patient populations at risk for IFI are diverse (Table 1). Oral mucosal candidiasis generally occurs in patients with severe T-cell impairment. A deficiency in the signaling pathway of dectin-1, a pathogen recognition receptor that recognizes the β-glucan constituent of fungal cell walls, has been linked to familial mucocutaneous candidiasis [1,2]. In contrast, in candidemia the portal of entry of Candida is typically a breach in the skin (e.g. from a central line or dialysis catheter) or bowel (e.g. from mucotoxic chemotherapy) [3].

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